Online ISSN: 1884-4111 Print ISSN: 0033-8303
Radioisotopes 71(3): 195-210 (2022)

連載講座Serial Lecture

(6)放射線照射食品の健全性(6) Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods

1公立大学法人大阪公立大学大学院工学研究科量子放射線系専攻Department of Quantum and Radiation Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Metropolitan University

2研究推進機構放射線研究センターRadiation Research Center, Organization for Research Promotion, Osaka Metropolitan University

発行日:2022年11月15日Published: November 15, 2022

放射線照射食品健全性についての考え方と欧米やわが国の長年に渡る健全性評価の先行研究について解説した。特に放射線照射により食品中の脂質から特異的に生成する2-アルキルシクロブタノン類(2-alkylcyclobutanones; 2-ACBs)の毒性試験に関して,最近のわが国で実施された研究成果を欧米の先行研究と対比して解説した。わが国の研究では,欧米の先行研究の試験条件を参考にし,より厳しい投与条件を用いて試験を行った。国際的なガイドラインに従って実施した遺伝毒性のバッテリー試験の結果はすべて陰性であった。一方で発がんプロモーション活性については,培養細胞を用いたスクリーニング試験において,2-ドデシルシクロブタノン(2-dodecylcyclobutanone; 2-dDCB)及び2-テトラデシルシクロブタノン(2-tetradecylcyclobutanone; 2-tDCB)はともに陽性を示したが,実験動物を用いたさらに高度な試験においてはすべて陰性であった。以上のことから,2-ACBsの毒性学的懸念は否定され,これまで国際機関が示してきた照射食品の安全性に関する見解を覆すような新たな知見は得られなかったと結論できる。

The concept of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and previous studies on their toxicological safety in Europe, the U.S., and Japan over many years are described. In particular, the recent Japanese research on the safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are specifically produced from lipids in foods by irradiation, was described in comparison with the previous studies in Europe and the United States. In the Japanese study, the test conditions were based on those of the previous studies in Europe and the U.S., and more stringent dosing conditions were used in the study. Genotoxicity tests on cells, including cells collected from animals, were all negative. On the other hand, screening tests using cultured cells showed that both 2-dDCB and 2-tDCB were positive for carcinogenic promotion activity, but more advanced tests using laboratory animals showed that all tests were negative. Based on the above, it can be concluded that no findings were obtained that would overturn the current opinion of international organizations regarding the safety of 2-ACBs in irradiated foods.

Key words: toxicology study; genetic toxicity; carcinogenesis promoting activity; 2-alkylcyclobutanone; irradiated foods

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