Online ISSN: 1884-4111 Print ISSN: 0033-8303
Radioisotopes 67(6): 267-275 (2018)

連載講座Serial Lecture

超重元素の核的性質(理論)超重核の安定の島Nuclear Properties of Super Heavy Elements (Theory)Island of Stability of Superheavy Nuclei

日本原子力研究開発機構先端基礎研究センターAdvanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency ◇ 319–1195 茨城県那珂郡東海村大字白方2–4 ◇ 2–4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki Pref. 319–1195, Japan

発行日:2018年6月15日Published: June 15, 2018

超重核領域における原子核の核構造,崩壊様式の理論について概説をし,いわゆる「超重核の安定の島」の理論的予測について筆者が行った研究結果を中心に紹介する。この領域にはα崩壊,β崩壊,自発核分裂といった様々な崩壊様式が混在し,その競合により各原子核の寿命(安定性)が定まる。筆者らの研究により,陽子の数が114, 中性子の数が184の閉殻性により生じる安定の島において,294Ds(原子番号110)がおよそ300年の半減期のα崩壊優勢核種という理論予測が得られている。

Nuclear structure and decay modes in the heavy and superheavy nuclear mass region is reviewed from a theoretical view, and a prediction of ‘island of stability of superheavy nuclei is shown with some results by the author. In the region there exists various decay modes as alpha decay, beta decay, spontaneous fission, etc. The stability of nucleus is governed by nuclear decay properties. We found a periodicity of nuclear shell closure with numbers of neutron as 126, 184 and 228. We also found an alpha-decay dominant nucleus with approximately three-hundred years of half-life, 294Ds (Z=110), as the nucleus with the longest half-life in the island of stability of superheavy nuclei.

Key words: superheavy element; superheavy nuclei; island of stability; nuclear decay; nuclear shell structure

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